Our aim is to understand the activation dynamics of cortical sensorimotor networks allowing an intention to make a motor action emerge. To achieve this, we have developed an original approach combining cortical stimulation and recordings of the activation of cortical networks in humans. This is achieved both at a surface level in healthy subjects (using combined stereotactic TMS and simultaneous EEG recording) and at the intra-cerebral level in epileptic patients (using SEEG), therefore involving neuronal populations of different sizes.
For the stereotactic TMS-EEG combination, state-of-the-art equipments are now in cursive use in the laboratory. The EEG/TMS combination offers, for the first time in healthy human subjects, the possibility to induce a well-localized central perturbation of brain dynamics and to on-line measure its direct effects on the cerebral activation based on cortical reactivity, functional connectivity, induced oscillatory activity, and coherence between-populations. From the response of the brain to this stimulation, one can discover many properties of brain activation and try to interfere with them in return.
Research Domains: Action, Intention, Perception, Resting states, Langage (oral and written)
Specific interests: Interactions between primary and non primary sensory-motor cortical area
Interactions between prefrontal cortical area and sensori-motor networks
Integration of knowledge on the activation dynamics of cortical sensorimotor networks and the excitability of the corticospinal tract
Methods: stereotactic TMS combined with EEG, EMG and behavioral data, fMRI
Bonnard, M., & Pailhous, J. (1993). Intentionality in human gait control: modifying the frequency/amplitude relationships. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 429-443.
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Bonnard, M., Galléa, C., de Graaf, J., & Pailhous, J. (2007). Corticospinal control of the thumb-index grip depends on precision of force control : a TMS and fMRI study in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, 25 (3), 872-880.
De Graaf, J., Frolov, A., Fiocchi, M., Nazarian, B., Anton, J.L., Pailhous, J. & Bonnard, M. (2009). Preparing for a motor perturbation : early implication of primary motor and somatosensory cortices. Human Brain Mapping, 30 (2), 575-587.
Bonnard, M., Spieser, L., Meziane, H.B., de Graaf, J.B., & Pailhous, J. (2009). Prior intention can locally tune inhibitory processes in the primary motor cortex: direct evidence from combined TMS-EEG. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30 (5), 913-923.
Spieser, L., Meziane, H.B., & Bonnard, M. (2010). Cortical mechanisms underlying stretch reflex adaptation to the intention: a combined EEG-TMS study. Neuroimage, 52, 316-325.
Spieser, L., Aubert, S., & Bonnard, M. (2013). Involvement of SMAp in the intention-related long-latency stretch reflex modulation : a TMS study. Neuroscience, 246, 329-341.
Chen, S., Entakli, J., Bonnard, M., Berton, E. & De Graaf, J.B. (2013). Functional corticospinal projections from human SMA revealed by corticomuscular coherence during precision grip force control. PLoS ONE, 8(3):e60291.
Entakli, J., Bonnard, M., Chen, S., Berton, E. & De Graaf, J.B. (2014). TMS reveals a direct influence of spinal projections from human SMAp on precise force production. European Journal of Neuroscience, 39(1):132-40.
Pattamadilok, C., Ponz, A., Planton, S. & Bonnard, M. (2016). Contribution of writing to reading: Dissociation between cognitive and motor process in the left dorsal premotor cortex. Human Brain Mapping. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.23118. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
Runnqvist, E., Bonnard, M., Gauvin, H.S., Attarian, S., Trébuchon, A., Hartsuiker, R.J. & Alario, F.X. (2016). Internal modeling of upcoming speech: A causal role of the right posterior cerebellum in non-motor aspects of language production. Cortex, 81:203-214.
Bonnard, M., Chen, S., Gaychet, J., Carrere, M., Woodman, M., Giusiano, B. & Jirsa, V. (2016). Resting state brain dynamics and its transients: a combined TMS-EEG study. Scientific Reports Aug 4;6:31220. doi: 10.1038/srep31220.